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Meningitis

Generalities
Agent There are several agents causing meningitis.
1) Main Bacteria:
- Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus): Gram negative diplococci. Main invasive serotypes are A, B, C, W135, X, and Y.
- Haemophilus influenza: Gram negative cocco-bacilli. There are 6 serotypes from (a) to (f). The serotype (b) is responsible of invasive infection.
- Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus): Gram positive diplococci. There are more than 90 serotypes.
- Leptospira: spirochetes, Leptospira interrogans (26 serogroups)
- Listeria monocytogenes: Gram positive, rod-shapped
- Other bacterial agents: Staphylococcus, enteric bacteria, group B streptococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis…
2) Virus:
- Mumps
- Measles
- West Nile virus: a Flavivirus
- Enterovirus: including Coxsackieviruses A (2-4, 7, 9-10), Coxsackieviruses B (1-6), Echoviruses (2, 5-7, 9-11, 14, 18, 30), Enterovirus 71, Poliovirus (1-3)
- Herpes Simplex virus (types 1 and 2): family Herpesviridae
- Varicella-Zoster virus: Human (alpha) Herpesvirus 3 (varicella-zoster) from the group Herpesvirus
- Adenovirus: Adenovirus, several types (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7), genus Mastadenovirus, family Adenoviridae, - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: an Arenavirus
- Sandfly fever viruses: genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. They include more than 60 antigenically distinct virus serotypes. Two main groups are identified: a) Sandfly fever group including the Naples serocomplex (Karimabad virus, Arabia virus, Massilia virus, Punique virus, Tehran virus, Toscana virus …) and Sicilian serocomplex; and b) Uukuniemi group
-Other virus: arboviruses…
3) Parasites: - Candida albicans, cryptococcus…
Incubation period varies with the agent
Period of transmissibility varies with the agent
Reservoir varies with the agent
Modes of transmission varies with the agent
Clinical presentation varies with the agent
Resources
Case definition MOPH circular no. 52 (2007): Meningitis
MOPH circular no. 63 (2007): Neisseria meningitidis
MOPH circular no. 54 (2007): Haemophilus influenzae b
MOPH circular no. 36 (2012): West Nile Virus
Forms - Meningitis reporting form
- Meningitis investigation form
Data - Weekly report
- Meningitis 2019
- Meningitis 2018
- Meningitis 2017
- Meningitis 2016
- Meningitis 2015
- Meningitis 2014
- Meningitis 2013
- Meningitis 2012
- Meningitis 2011
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