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Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome

Generalities
Agent Rubella virus, genus Rubullovirus, family Togaviridae
Incubation period 14-17 days (range 14-21 days)
Period of transmissibility - 7 days before rash and 4 days after rash onset
- From congenital rubella: infants shed the virus for several months after birth
Reservoir Humans
Modes of transmission - Person-to-person: direct contact with droplets
- Infants with Congenital Rubella Syndrome shed large quantities of virus in their pharyngeal secretions and urine.
- Materno-foetal transmission: 90% of infants born to women infected with rubella during the 1st trimester. The risk of transmission is 10-20% by the 16th week, and rare after the 20th week.
Clinical presentation - Febril maculo-papular rash
- Complications: thrombocytopenia (1/3000), post-infectious encephalitis (1/6000), rarely chronic arthritis
- Congenital Rubella Syndrome: Congenital malformation as deafness, cataracts, microphtalmia, congenital glaucoma, pigmentary retinopathy, nystagmus, microcephaly, meningo-encephalitis, mental retardation, patent ductus arteious, atrial or ventricular septal defects, other congenital heart disease, purpura, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, radiolucent bone disease
Resources
Case definitions - MOPH circular no 12 (2013): Acquired Rubella
- MOPH circular no 45 (2007): Congenital Rubella Syndrome
Forms - Rash reporting form
- CRS reporting form
- Rash investigation form
- CRS investigation form
Data - Rubella 2018
- Rubella 2017
- Rubella 2016
- Rubella 2015
- Rubella 2014
- Rubella 2013
- Rubella 2012  
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